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英语定语从句详解

                        英语定语从句详解

定语从句是高中英语学习中的重中之重,也是影响学生得分的关键。很多同学因为对定语从句了解不够和句子成分分析不正确而导致做题出错,失分严重。现在将定语从句的重点用法整理如下,希望对同学们的此项学习有所帮助。

. 定语:

修饰名词或代词的词、短语或从句称为定语。汉语中常用‘……表示。 定语主要由形容词担任。此外名词、代词、数词、副词、介词短语以及动词不定式(短语)、分词也可以做定语。

a beautiful city; a bag full of money.注意:汉语的定语无论多长都放在被修饰词的前面,而英语中的定语则不然,是一个词时,放在被修饰词的前面, 若是两个以上的词组、短语或从句则放在被修饰词的后面,

thirty women teachers ; his father; the girl in red. the boy from America

Our monitor is always the first student to enter the classroom.

He is the man who you are looking for.

二:定义从句

1.定语从句:修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句,定语从句一般紧跟在它所修饰的先行词之后。

2.先行词:被定语从句修饰的名词或代词叫先行词。

3.关系词:引导定语从句的词叫关系词。关系词有关系代词和关系副词。关系代词有that, which, who, whom, whose, as等;关系副词有when, where, why.

1.  I have an apple. An apple is red.

I have an apple that/which is red.

2. I like some friends. Some friends like sports.

I like friends who like sports.

关系词通常有下列三个作用:A、引导定语从句,连接主从句;B、代替先行词;C、在定语从句中担当一个成分。

(一)关系代词引导的定语从句

1who 指人,在定语从句中作主语。

The boys who are playing football are from Class One.

Those who want to go to the museum must be at the school gate at 7 tomorrow morning.

2whom 指人,在定语从句中做宾语,常可省略。

Mr Liu is the person ( whom ) you talked about on the bus.

Li Ming is just the boy ( whom ) I want to see.

注意:关系代词whom 在口语或非正式文体中常可用who 来代替,也可省略。

The man ( whom / who )you met just now is my old friend.

3Which 指物,在定语从句中做主语或宾语,做宾语时常可省略。

Football is a game which is liked by most boys.

 He likes to read books which are written by foreign writers.

4That 即可指人,也可指物.。在定语从句中作主语或宾语,作宾语时常可省略。

The number of people that / who come to visit this city each year reaches one million.

The season that / which comes after spring is summer.

5Whose 即可指人,也可指物,在定语从句中做定语。

I visited a scientist whose name is known all over the country.

I once lived in the house whose roof has fallen in.

(二)限制性定语从句中只能用that 引导定语从句的情况

1.当先行词是everything, anything, nothing (something 除外), all, none, few, little, some等不定代词时,或当先行词受every, any, all, some, no, little, few, much等不定代词修饰时。如:

Have you taken down everything that Mr. Li said?

There seems to be nothing that is impossible to him in the world.

注意:当先行词指人时,偶尔也可用关系代词who,如:

Any man that / who has a sense of duty won’t do such a thing.

All the guests that / who were invited to her wedding were important people.

2.当先行词被序数词修饰时。如:

The first place that they visited in London was the Big Ben.

3.当先行词被形容词最高级修饰时。如:

This is the best film that I have ever seen.

4.当先行词被the very, the only修饰时。如:

This is the very dictionary that I want to buy.

After the fire in his house, the old car is the only thing that he owns.

注意:当先行词指人时,偶尔也可用关系代词who。如:

Wang Hua is the only person in our school who will attend the meeting.

5.当先行词前面有who, which等疑问代词时。如:

Who is the man that is standing by the gate?

Which is the T-shirt that fits me most?

6.当先行词为人与物时。如:

They talked about the persons and things that they remembered at school

(三)关系副词引导的定语从句

1 when 指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语。当先行词是表时间的名词,比如time, day, week, month, year等;且定语从句中缺时间状语时用when. 若先行词是表时间的名词,定语从句中缺主语或宾语时,用that/which引导。

I still remember the day when I first came to this school.

The time when we got together finally arrived.

2 where 指地点,在定语从句中作地点状语。若先行词是表地点的名词,比如park, city, farm, place等;且定语从句中缺地点状语时用where. 若先行词是表地点的名词,定语从句中缺主语或宾语时,用that/which引导。

Shanghai is the city where I was born.

The house where I lived ten years ago has been pulled down.

3 why 指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语。若先行词是reason; 且定语从句中缺原因状语时,用why引导。若先行词是reason,定语从句中缺主语或宾语,用which/that引导。

Please tell me the reason why you missed the plane.

I don’t know the reason why he looks unhappy today.

注意:关系副词引导的定语从句经常可以用介词+关系代词引导的定语从句来表示。如:

Great changes are taking place in the city where / in which they live.

The reason why / for which he refused the invitation is quite clear.

(四)介词+关系代词which/whom”引导的定语从句

关系代词在定语从句中作介词宾语时,从句常常由介词+关系代词引出。

The school (which / that) he once studied in is very famous.

The school in which he once studied is very famous.

注意:1. 含有介词的固定短语动词一般不拆开,介词仍放在短语动词的后面。如:look for, look after, take care of 等。

This is the watch (which / that) I am looking for. ()

This is the watch for which I am looking . ()

2.若介词放在关系代词前,关系代词指人时只可用whom,不可用who, that;关系代词指物时只可用which,不可用that

The man with whom you talked just now is my neighbour. ()

The man with that / who you talked just now is my neighbour. ()

3.介词+关系代词前还可有some, any, none, all, both, neither, many, most, each, few等代词或者数词。如:

He loves his parents deeply, both of whom are very kind to him.

In the basket there are quite many apples, some of which have gone bad.

注意事项: 如何判断关系代词和关系副词

方法一: 用关系代词,还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词。不及物动词后面无宾语,就必须要求用关系副词或者是介词加关系代词;而及物动词后接宾语,则要求用关系代词。

例如:This is the mountain village where I stayed last year. 

I'll never forget the days when I worked together with you. 

判断改错(注:先显示题,再显示答案,横线;用不同的颜色表示出。) 

(错) This is the mountain village where I visited last year. 

(错) I will never forget the days when I spent in the countryside. 

(对) This is the mountain village (which) I visited last year. 

(对) I'll never forget the days (which) I spent in the countryside. 

方法二: 准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、谓、宾、定、状),也能正确选择出关系代词/关系副词。

1. Is this museum ___ you visited a few days ago? 

A. where B. that  C. on which  D. the one

2. Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held?

A. where  B. that  C. on which  D. the one

答案: 关系词的选择依据在从句中所做的成分,先行词在从句中做主、定、宾语时,选择关系代词 (who, whom, that, which, whose);先行词在从句中做状语时,应选择关系副词 ( where 地点状语,when 时间状语,why 原因状语)

(五)限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句

1. 限制性定语从句

形式上:不用逗号与主句隔开。

意义上:是先行词不可缺少的定语,如删除,主句则失去意义或意思表达不完整。

译法上:译成先行词的定语:...的

关系词的使用上:A.作宾语时可省略 B.可用that C.可用who 代替whom

非限制性定语从句

形式上:用逗号与主句隔开。

意义上:只是对先行词的补充说明,如删除,主句仍能表达完整的意思。

译法上:通常译成主句的并列句。

关系词的使用上:A.不可省略 B.不用that C.不可用who 代替whom

2. 限制性定语从句举例:

The teacher told me that Tom was the only person that I could depend on.

His mother, who loves him very much, is strict with him.

(六)关系代词aswhich 引导的定语从句

as which 引导非限制性定语从句时, 其用法有相同之处,也有不同之处。具体情况是:

1. as which都可以在定语从句中做主语或宾语,代表前面整个句子。如:

He married her, as / which was natural. 他跟她结婚了,这是很自然的事。

He is honest, as / which we can see. 他很诚实, 这一点我们看得出来。

2. as 引导的非限制性定语从句可以放在主句之前、主句之后,甚至还可以分割主句。 which 引导的非限制性定语从句只可放在主句之后。另外,as 常常有正如、正像的含义。如:

As is known to all, China is a developing country.

Zhang Hua has been to Paris more than ten times, which I don’t believe.

注意:当主句和从句之间存在着逻辑上的因果关系时,关系词往往只用which。如:

Tom was late for school again and again, which made his teacher very angry.

These tables are made of metal, which made them very heavy.

3. 当先行词受such, so, the same 修饰时,关系词常用as 如:

He is not such a fool as he looks.

This is the same dictionary as I lost last week.

注意:当先行词受the same 修饰时,偶尔也用 that引导定语从句,但与as引导的定语从句意思有区别。如:

She wore the same dress that she wore at Mary’s wedding.

She wore the same dress as her younger sister wore.

() the way为先行词时,若定语从句中缺方式状语,定语从句通常由in whichthat引导,而且还可以省略。若定语从句中缺主语或宾语,用(that/which)引导定语从句。

The way (that / in which ) he answered the questions was surprising.

I don’t like the way (that / in which) you laugh at her.

总之,做定语从句题目时要以分析句子成分为前提。做定语从句题一般分三步:第一找出先行词;第二看先行词在定语从句中的语法功能(做主语、宾语或状语);第三选择合适的关联词。能够正确做好这几步,一般定语从句题目就不会再出错了。